Communism is a political and economic doctrine that proposes to abolish private property and a profit-based economy and to establish public ownership and communal control of the major means of production and the natural resources of a society. Communism is also a movement that strives to realize such a society. According to Karl Marx, one of the originators of communism, there are two phases of communism that would ensue after the anticipated overthrow of capitalism: the first would be a transitional system in which the working class would exercise power over the government and economy, and the second would be fully developed communism in which there would be no class divisions, money or state.
Top 10 successful communist countries in Global
Nevertheless, no country has ever attained the second phase of communism, and many countries that professed to be communist have deviated from the original principles of Marx. Therefore, to rank the most successful communist countries in history, we need to employ some criteria that can assess their performance in terms of political, economic and social aspects. Some possible criteria are:
- The extent of public ownership and communal control of the means of production and natural resources
- The extent of democracy and participation of the people in decision-making
- The extent of equality and social justice among the people
- The extent of economic development and growth
- The extent of human development and well-being
Using these criteria, we can attempt to list the top 10 successful communist countries in history. However, this list is subjective and debatable, and different sources may have different opinions. Here is one possible list based on some web sources :
|China is the most populous and powerful communist country in the world. It has preserved public ownership of most industries and natural resources, but has also introduced market reforms and private enterprises since the late 1970s. It has achieved remarkable economic growth and development, lifting millions of people out of poverty and becoming a global leader in technology and innovation. However, it has also faced challenges such as environmental degradation, income inequality, human rights violations and political repression.
|Cuba is one of the few remaining communist countries that has resisted US pressure and intervention. It has preserved public ownership and communal control of most sectors of the economy, and has provided free health care, education and social services to its people. It has also achieved high levels of human development, literacy and life expectancy. However, it has also suffered from economic stagnation, isolation, shortages and sanctions.
|Vietnam is a communist country that has also adopted market reforms and opened up to foreign trade and investment since the late 1980s. It has preserved public ownership of strategic industries and natural resources, but has also allowed private enterprises and competition in other sectors. It has achieved rapid economic growth and development, reducing poverty and improving living standards. However, it has also faced problems such as corruption, inequality, environmental issues and political repression.
|Laos is a communist country that has also followed the path of market reforms and integration with the global economy since the late 1980s. It has preserved public ownership of key industries and natural resources, but has also encouraged private investment and trade in other areas. It has achieved steady economic growth and development, reducing poverty and improving infrastructure. However, it has also faced challenges such as debt, dependency, corruption and human rights abuses.
|Yugoslavia was a communist country that was unique in its non-alignment with either the Soviet bloc or the Western bloc during the Cold War. It had a system of self-management in which workers’ councils controlled enterprises and social services. It had a high degree of decentralization and autonomy for its constituent republics and ethnic groups. It had a relatively prosperous and diversified economy, with strong industrialization and social welfare. However, it also faced tensions among its diverse population, which eventually led to its violent breakup in the 1990s.
|Kerala is a state in India that has been ruled by communist parties for most of its history since 1957. It has pursued a model of democratic socialism that emphasizes land reform, public education, health care and social justice. It has achieved high levels of human development, literacy, gender equality and life expectancy. However, it has also faced difficulties such as unemployment, migration, fiscal deficit and environmental degradation.
|Angola was a communist country that emerged from a long and bloody struggle for independence from Portugal. It had a system of central planning and public ownership of the economy, and received support from the Soviet Union and Cuba. It had a strong military and political presence in the region, and played a role in the liberation of other African countries. However, it also faced a civil war, foreign intervention, economic collapse and social unrest.
|Afghanistan was a communist country that came to power through a coup d’etat in 1978. It had a system of state socialism that aimed to modernize and secularize the country, and implemented reforms such as land redistribution, women’s rights and education. It received support from the Soviet Union and other communist countries. However, it also faced a fierce resistance from the mujahideen, a guerrilla movement backed by the US and other countries. It also faced internal divisions, corruption, human rights violations and economic decline.
|Mongolia was a communist country that was closely aligned with the Soviet Union. It had a system of state socialism that followed the Soviet model of central planning and public ownership of the economy. It had a rapid industrialization and urbanization process, and improved its social indicators such as health, education and literacy. However, it also faced dependency, isolation, environmental degradation and political repression.
|Albania was a communist country that was initially allied with the Soviet Union, but later broke away and became more isolated and independent. It had a system of state socialism that emphasized self-reliance and national sovereignty. It had a high degree of social equality and security, and provided free health care, education and housing to its people. However, it also faced poverty, backwardness, isolation and dictatorship.
Communism is an ideology and a movement that has inspired many countries and people around the world. However, no country has ever achieved the ideal state of communism as envisioned by Marx. The countries that have professed to be communist have varied in their political, economic and social systems and outcomes. Some have been more successful than others in terms of achieving public ownership, democracy, equality, development and well-being. However, none have been perfect or without problems. Therefore, it is difficult to rank the most successful communist countries in history, as different criteria and perspectives may lead to different results.
Most Asking Questions and Answers
Here are some possible questions and answers about communism:
Q: What is the distinction between communism and socialism?
A: Communism is a form of socialism that aims to create a classless, stateless and moneyless society based on common ownership of the means of production. Socialism is a broader term that refers to any system that seeks to reduce or eliminate the exploitation of workers by the owners of capital.
Q: What are the merits and demerits of communism?
A: Some merits of communism are: it can eradicate poverty, inequality, exploitation and oppression; it can ensure social justice and human dignity; it can promote cooperation and solidarity among people; it can reduce wastefulness and environmental damage. Some demerits of communism are: it can limit individual freedom and choice; it can stifle innovation and creativity; it can create bureaucracy and inefficiency; it can lead to totalitarianism and dictatorship.
Q: Why did communism collapse in the Soviet Union?
A: There are many reasons why communism collapsed in the Soviet Union, but some of the main ones are: it faced external pressure and competition from the US and other capitalist countries; it faced internal resistance and dissatisfaction from its people; it faced economic stagnation and decline due to central planning and mismanagement; it faced political corruption and decay due to lack of democracy and accountability.
Q: Is China still a communist country?
A: China is still officially a communist country, as it is ruled by the Communist Party of China (CPC), which claims to uphold the ideology of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism. However, China has also undergone significant market reforms and opening up since the late 1970s, which have introduced elements of capitalism and globalization into its economy. Therefore, some argue that China is no longer truly communist, but rather a hybrid or authoritarian capitalist system.
Q: Is North Korea a communist country?
A: North Korea is formally a communist country, as it is ruled by the Workers’ Party of Korea (WPK), which claims to follow the ideology of Juche (self-reliance) and Songun (military-first). However, North Korea has also developed its own unique political system that is based on the cult of personality of its leaders (Kim Il-sung, Kim Jong-il and Kim Jong-un) and their family dynasty. Therefore, some argue that North Korea is not really communist, but rather a totalitarian dictatorship.
Q: Is Cuba a communist country?
A: Cuba is officially a communist country, as it is ruled by the Communist Party of Cuba (PCC), which claims to follow the ideology of Marxism-Leninism and the Cuban Revolution. However, Cuba has also implemented some economic and social reforms since the 1990s, which have allowed some degree of private enterprise, foreign investment and social liberalization. Therefore, some argue that Cuba is not strictly communist, but rather a socialist or mixed economy.
Q: What are some examples of communist movements or parties in the world today?
A: Some examples of communist movements or parties in the world today are: the Communist Party of India (Maoist), which is waging a guerrilla war against the Indian state; the New People’s Army (NPA), which is fighting for a communist revolution in the Philippines; the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), which is negotiating a peace deal with the Colombian government after decades of armed struggle; the Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist Centre), which is part of the ruling coalition in Nepal; and the Communist Party USA (CPUSA), which is a minor political party in the US.
Q: What are some common misconceptions or myths about communism?
A: Some common misconceptions or myths about communism are: communism is the same as fascism or Nazism; communism is opposed to religion or morality; communism is incompatible with democracy or human rights; communism is inevitable or desirable; communism is dead or irrelevant.
Q: What are some challenges or criticisms of communism?
A: Some challenges or criticisms of communism are: communism goes against human nature or individuality; communism ignores the role of markets or incentives; communism requires violence or coercion; communism leads to dictatorship or totalitarianism; communism fails to deliver economic or social progress.
Q: What are some benefits or contributions of communism?
A: Some benefits or contributions of communism are: communism inspires people to fight for a better world; communism challenges the injustices and inequalities of capitalism; communism offers a vision of a society based on cooperation and solidarity; communism fosters a critical and dialectical way of thinking; communism produces some great art and culture.
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